Crash Testing with a DDEC 10 Equipped Tractor

Two crash tests were conducted on 20 March 2011 at the Reynolds Airpark near Jacksonville, FL. This testing was done in conjunction with the Institute for Police Technology and Management (IPTM) as part of their preparation for the 2012 Special Problems Conference. The two crashes performed were with two different Cadillac Devilles into the rear of an empty semi-trailer attached to a 2012 Freightliner Cascadia. The first test was performed such that the Cadillac was pulled by the truck into the trailer so the speed of the Cadillac was twice that of the trailer. The second crash had similar closing velocities, but the tractor-trailer combination was stationary with no brakes. During these tests, the J1939 network traffic was recorded and a DDEC Reports was obtained. Correlating signals using a common time base was explored by transmitting signals from a VBox 3i GPS onto the J1939 network. This resulted in fault codes due to overloading the CAN-bus. Dynamic data from accelerometers and video records of the crash are also presented in this article.

The organization of this page is as follows:

  1. Crash Test Videos
  2. Description of the Vehicles
  3. Syncronization of Data Using the J1939 Network
  4. Crash Testing Procedure

Crash Test Video Links

One of the most popular aspects of crash testing is the video produced from such an event. The following table contains links for the original file from the camera along with conversions to Windows Media Video (WMV) and MPEG-4 files that are iPhone/iPad compatible.

To download the file, try right-clicking the link and select Save Link As or something similar.

Crash Test 1

These videos show a Cadillac Deville running into the back of a moving trailer.

Description Original File Windows wmv Apple MP4

Video VBox Showing
Cadillac Hit Trailer

VideoVBOXCrash1.AVI
(51.14 MB)
VideoVBoxCrash1.wmv
(4.01 MB)
VideoVBoxCrash1.mp4
(13.36 MB)
High Speed (300 fps)
Left Side Moving View
CIMG1043.MOV
(8.86 MB)
LeftViewMovingUnderride.wmv
(3.98 MB)
LeftViewMovingUnderride.mp4
(5.14 MB)
View from Back of
Trailer (High Def)
ViewFromTrailer.mpg
(33.26 MB)
ViewFromTrailer-Small.wmv
(1.59 MB)

ViewFromTrailer_H264_1280x720
(9.23 MB)
ViewFromTrailer_H264_640x480

(4.94 MB)

Crash Test 2

These videos show a Cadillac Deville running into the back of a stationary trailer.

Description Original File Windows wmv Apple MP4

Video VBox Mounted
in the Trailer

VideoVBOXCrash2.AVI
(6.27 MB)
VideoVBoxCrash2.wmv
(912 kB)
VideoVBoxCrash2.mp4
(2.59 MB)
High Speed (300 fps)
Right Side View 1
CIMG1046.MOV
(9.07 MB)
RightViewUnderride1.wmv
(4.08 MB)
RightViewUnderride1.mp4
(13.98 MB)
High Speed (240 fps)
Right Side View 2
CIMG0410.AVI
(34.66 MB)
RightViewUnderride2.wmv
(3.98 MB)
RightViewUnderride2.mp4
(5.14 MB)

High Speed (300 fps)
Right Side View 3

CIMG2342.MOV
(11.89 MB)
RightViewUnderride3.wmv
(3.12 MB)
RightViewUnderride3.mp4
(5.14 MB)

The data file that corresponds to the Video VBox is VBox Lite Data From Crash2.vbo. This is a plain text file that can be imported into Excel.

Vehicle Descriptions

Truck Tractor and Semi-trailer Combination

Truck

The truck was a 2011 Freightliner Cascadia Day cab 6x4 truck tractor with a Detroit Diesel DD13 engine. It used a 4S/4M Electronic Brake Controller.

VIN: 1FUJGEDV3C8BD6318

GVWR (lb) 52,000

Date of Manufacturer: 02/11

The following image is from the placard in the dash of the cab.

Component Tag

The following photo is from the tag on the axle. The differential gear ratio is 3.70 as shown in the Component Information Tag.

Axle Tag

It used a 10-speed manual Eaton-Fuller FRO-15210C transmission.

TransmissionTag

Trailer

A Wabash FRP-707C 53 ft box van trailer was connected to the truck. The rear axles on the trailer were placed in the farthest forward position.

Truck Tractor

Weights

TrailerWeights

Cadillac from Test 1

Caddilac from Test 1

VIN: 1G6KD52B3RU231203

Year, Make and Model: 1994 Cadillac Deville

Weight in pounds as weighed with Intercomp Race Scales:

 

Cadillac from Test 2

Cadillac from Test 2

VIN: 1G6KD52YXTU255428

Year, Make and Model: 1994 Cadillac Deville

Weight in pounds as weighed with Intercomp Race Scales:

Syncronizing Data Using the J1939 Network

J1939 Baseline Data

VectorCANCaseXLLogRawFiles.zip (35 MB)

Crash Testing Procedure

Vehicle Preparation

Data Acquisition Setup

VBox 3i

Vector CANCase XL Log

Video VBox

HBM eDaq Lite

 

Crash 1 Data With Both Vehicle Moving

VBox Data

The VBox 3i 100 Hz GPS was mounted in the cab of the truck with the satellite receiver taped to the fiberglass roof. The original data file for crash 1 is a VBO text file that can be imported as text in Excel. This file was also saved as a comma separated values (CSV) file that can be directly opened with Excel and is saved as Crash1-VBOX3iData-Truck.csv. A graph from the VBOX Tools is shown below. The red line is speed in MPH. The scales for the other traces on the graph are not shown. This is an example of the data in the files mentioned in this paragraph.

Crash 1 VBox 3i Graph

For crash 2 the tractor was stationary, so the VBox 3i was moved to the Caddilac. The original file is Crash2-VBOX3iData-Cadillac.VBO that can be opened in Racelogic's VBox Tools or as a text file in a spreadsheet. Crash2-VBOX3iData-Cadillac.csv is a file that will open directly into Excel. Below is the speed graph of the Cadillac from test 2.

Crash 2 VBox 3i Data

The noise associated with the impact comes from the lid of the trunk coming open during impact. The metal truck lid blocked satelites while it was in motion. This explains the multiple zeros during the crash event. Review of the high speed video shows the most likely post impact velocity is near zero, then the trailer snags and drags the Cadillac forward.

 

Network Data (See Detailed Message Analysis)

These are large files as they represent complete logs of CAN traffic on the J1939 network.

Crash 1

can data

Crash 1 CAN graphic

Tractor data from Crash 1 with VBox messages injected into the data stream. The VBox documentation explains that the speed data is in knots.

Crash1-J1939Data-20320011.XLX is the raw file recorded by a Vector CANCase XL Log.

Crash1-J1939Data-20320011.csv is a text file that was produced by the Vector CANCase XL log configuration utility.

Crash1-J1939Data-120320011.xlsx is an Excel file that has the CAN data and the VBox 3i Data plotted for comparison.

Crash 1 DDEC Reports

After the crash, a DDEC Reports was extracted while the J1939 message traffic was recorded. The detailed analysis results are here: CAN Timing Results From Extracting DDEC Reports.

DDECReportsFromCrash1-J1939Data-20320012.XLS is the raw file recorded by a Vector CANCase XL Log.

DDECReportsFromCrash1-J1939Data-20320012.csv is a text file that was produced by the Vector CANCase XL log configuration utility that can be opened in Excel.

Crash 2 Network Recording

Crash2-J1939Data-20320011.XLX

DDEC Reports

Before any dynamic tests were performed, the Detroit Diesel Reports were pulled using version 7.02 software. This is the baseline data that contained all prior activity. During the process, the trip data was reset because the Vehicle Registry in DDEC Reports was not correctly configured after a new installation.

Baseline-DDECReport.pdf

A series of lane change manuevers and hard braking tests were performed. These added data to the DDEC Reports.

The Last Stop record reflects the dynamics from the crash. The spike corresponds to the crash as it has the same shape as the VBox 3i data.

Crash1-DDECReport.pdf

The second crash had the truck stationary with all brakes off, the engine running, and the transmission out of gear. The Last Stop record shows the surge forward from the crash. The delta-V according to the DDEC Reports was 2.5 mph.

Crash2-DDECReport.pdf

Detroit Diesel Diagnostic Link 7.08

Since the J1939 network was saturated with the VBox 3i CAN output channels, some low priority messages did not get through the network, which tripped fault codes. These codes are shown using the diagnostic software.

Post-crash-1-Fault-codes.pdf

 

VC4000 Accelerometer Data

Crash 1: Both Vehicles Moving

Truck Acceleration

Run0001_AccelTruckTest1.csv is a text file to open in a spreadsheet.

Run0001_AccelTruckTest1.run is a data file that needs Profile software from Vericom Computers to open.

Below is a figure showing the filtered data from the x-direction of the 50g accelerometer sampled at 1000 Hz.
Test 1 Truck Accel

Cadillac Acceleration

Run0002_AccelCadillacTest1.csv is a text file to open in a spreadsheet.

Run0002_Accel.CaddilacTest1.run is a data file that needs Profile software from Vericom Computers to open.

Cadillac Pulse from Test 1

Crash 2: Tractor-Trailer is Sationary

For this test the VC 4000 units were placed in the tractor-trailer combination. The unit that was mounted in the Cadillac for the first test was moved to the tractor to observe differences in acceleration between the trailer and the tractor.

Tractor Acceleration

Run0001_AccelTractorTest2.csv is a text file to open in a spreadsheet.

Run0001_AccelTractorTest2.run is a data file that needs Profile software from Vericom Computers to open.

Test 2 Cadillac

Trailer Acceleration

Run0001_AccelTrailerTest2.csv

Run0001_AccelTrailerTest2.run

Since the trailer accelerometer was mounted close to the impact location, the signal contains a significant amount of hight frequency content that shows itself as a more jagged signal compared to the tractor accelerometer.

Garmin GPS Units

Crash 1

The GPS unit below shows 31.8. mph for the maximum speed for the tractor.

Crash1GPS

The image below shows 58.6 mph as the speed of the Cadillac that is nearly double that of the tractor.

Caddi GPS test 1

Crash 2

The GPS unit below shows 35.4 mph for maximum speed for Cadillac when the tractor-trailer was stationary.

Rear GPS Test 2

Discussion and Analysis

To be continued...